Informationen über PCI/USB/PCMCIA Geräte anzeigen 

    ~ # lspci (-vv)
    00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 82945G/GZ/P/PL Memory Controller Hub (rev 02)
    02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82573L Gigabit Ethernet Controller
    ~ # lsusb
    Bus 005 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
    Bus 002 Device 001: ID 0000:0000
    Bus 004 Device 001: ID 0000:0000

    Update der Datenbank für lspci/lsusb die Geräte identifiziert

    ~ # update-pciids
      % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                     Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
    100  137k  100  137k    0     0  62870      0  0:00:02  0:00:02 --:--:-- 73637
    Done.
     ~ # update-usbids
    --08:22:57--  http://linux-usb.sourceforge.net/usb.ids
               => `/var/lib/usbutils/usb.ids.new'
    Auflösen des Hostnamen »linux-usb.sourceforge.net«.... 66.35.250.209
    Verbindungsaufbau zu linux-usb.sourceforge.net|66.35.250.209|:80... verbunden.
    HTTP Anforderung gesendet, warte auf Antwort... 200 OK
    Länge: 206.777 (202K) [text/plain]
    100%[============================================>] 206.777      140.04K/s
    08:22:59 (139.56 KB/s) - »/var/lib/usbutils/usb.ids.new« gespeichert [206777/206777]
    Done.

    Systemvariablen anzeigen/ändern

    ~ # sysctl -a
    dev.parport.parport0.devices.active = none
    dev.parport.parport0.modes = PCSPP,TRISTATE,EPP
    dev.parport.parport0.dma = -1
    ...
    fs.file-max = 101443
    fs.file-nr = 1696       0       101443
    fs.inode-state = 32523  13665   0       0       0       0       0
    fs.inode-nr = 32523     13665
    ~ # sysctl kernel.hostname=deepdance

    Aktivität von Partitionen anzeigen

    ~ # vmstat -d
    disk- ------------reads------------ ------------writes----------- -----IO------
           total merged sectors      ms  total merged sectors      ms    cur    sec
    ram0       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram1       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram2       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram3       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram4       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram5       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram6       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram7       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram8       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram9       0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram10      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram11      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram12      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram13      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram14      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    ram15      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    hda        0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    sda   25640971 15424452 2643751330 218804424 60081536 142003150 1681161416 595195676      0 265687
    sdb   25234870 15371843 2617084684 239739472 60068571 142013756 1681144176 608372040      0 277115
    md0    41657      0 3285632       0     93      0    9312       0      0      0
    md1   69610349      0 3714493562       0 194133118      0 1553064944       0      0      0
    fd0        0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop0      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop1      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop2      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop3      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop4      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop5      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop6      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0
    loop7      0      0       0       0      0      0       0       0      0      0

    aktuell Verbundene Benutzer (w/who)

    ~ # w
     08:41:14 up 151 days, 11:53,  1 user,  load average: 1,16, 0,95, 0,86
    USER     TTY      FROM              LOGIN@   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU WHAT
    root     pts/0    proxy174.de          08:40    0.00s  0.09s  0.00s w

    die letzten Logins anzeigen

     ~ # last
    root     pts/0        p508d4093.dip.t- Sun Dec 23 15:28   still logged in
    root     pts/0        p508d4093.dip.t- Sun Dec 23 09:48 - 09:55  (00:07)
    root     pts/0        p508d78ce.dip.t- Sat Dec 22 10:27 - 10:27  (00:00)
    web1     ftpd3785     ::ffff:80.141.12 Fri Dec 21 19:08 - 19:08  (00:00)
    wtmp begins Sat Dec  1 11:49:43 2007 

    woher bezieht ein Programm seine Infos?

    ~ # strace free

    Laufene Prozesse anzeigen (top/htop)

    ~ # top
    top - 08:48:08 up 151 days, 12:00,  1 user,  load average: 0.91, 0.88, 0.85
    Tasks: 128 total,   1 running, 127 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
    Cpu(s):  9.1%us,  0.2%sy,  0.0%ni, 90.0%id,  0.6%wa,  0.0%hi,  0.0%si,  0.0%st
    Mem:   1028104k total,  1009936k used,    18168k free,    60032k buffers
    Swap:  1992040k total,       56k used,  1991984k free,   434496k cached
      PID USER      PR  NI  VIRT  RES  SHR S %CPU %MEM    TIME+  COMMAND
    13113 root      18   0 36696  34m  864 S   49  3.5  27296:34 dnstop
        1 root      15   0  1852  584  500 S    0  0.1   0:03.02 init
        2 root      RT   0     0    0    0 S    0  0.0   0:06.94 migration/0
        3 root      34  19     0    0    0 S    0  0.0   0:00.52 ksoftirqd/0
        4 root      RT   0     0    0    0 S    0  0.0   0:06.22 migration/1

    Bootmeldung anzeigen

    ~ # dmesg
    Linux version 2.6.18-4-686 (Debian 2.6.18.dfsg.1-12etch2) (dannf@debian.org) (gcc version 4.1.2 20061115 (prerelease) (Debian 4.1.1-21)) #1 SMP Wed May 9 23:03:12 UTC 2007
    BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
    ...
    ACPI: RSDP (v000 ASUS                                  ) @ 0x000f5330
    ACPI: RSDT (v001 ASUS   P4PE-XSE 0x42302e31 MSFT 0x31313031) @ 0x3ffec000
    ACPI: FADT (v001 ASUS   P4PE-XSE 0x42302e31 MSFT 0x31313031) @ 0x3ffec0c0
    ACPI: BOOT (v001 ASUS   P4PE-XSE 0x42302e31 MSFT 0x31313031) @ 0x3ffec030
    ACPI: MADT (v001 ASUS   P4PE-XSE 0x42302e31 MSFT 0x31313031) @ 0x3ffec058
    ACPI: DSDT (v001   ASUS P4PE-XSE 0x00001000 MSFT 0x0100000b) @ 0x00000000

    Hardware Übersicht (lshw)

    ~ # lshw -short
    H/W path                Device     Class      Description
    =========================================================
                                       system     System Name
    /0                                 bus        P4PE-X
    /0/0                               memory     64KB BIOS
    /0/4                               processor  Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 2.66GHz
    /0/4/9                             memory     8KB L1 cache
    /0/4/a                             memory     512KB L2 cache
    /0/2b                              memory     1GB System Memory
    /0/2b/0                            memory     512MB DIMM DRAM Synchronous
    /0/2b/1                            memory     512MB DIMM DRAM Synchronous
    /0/2b/2                            memory     DIMM DRAM Synchronous [empty]
    /0/f8000000                        bridge     82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE/PE DRAM Controller/Host-Hub Interface
    /0/f8000000/1                      bridge     82845G/GL[Brookdale-G]/GE/PE Host-to-AGP Bridge
    /0/f8000000/1/0         /dev/fb0   display    Rage 128 Pro Ultra TF
    /0/f8000000/1e                     bridge     82801 PCI Bridge
    /0/f8000000/1e/b        eth1       network    3c905C-TX/TX-M [Tornado]
    /0/f8000000/1f                     bridge     82801DB/DBL (ICH4/ICH4-L) LPC Interface Bridge
    /0/f8000000/1f.1                   storage    82801DB (ICH4) IDE Controller
    /0/f8000000/1f.1/0      ide0       bus        IDE Channel 0
    /0/f8000000/1f.1/0/0    /dev/hda   disk       74GB WDC WD800BB-00JHC0
    /0/f8000000/1f.1/0/0/1  /dev/hda1  disk       Linux filesystem partition
    /0/f8000000/1f.1/0/0/2  /dev/hda2  disk       Linux swap / Solaris partition
    /0/f8000000/1f.1/1      ide1       bus        IDE Channel 1
    /0/f8000000/1f.1/1/0    /dev/hdc   disk       SAMSUNG CD-ROM SC-152A
    /0/f8000000/1f.1/1/0/0  /dev/hdc   disk

    Offene Ports anzeigen

    ~ # netstat -l | grep -e ^tcp -e ^udp
    tcp        0      0 localhost.localdo:60000 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 localhost.localdo:10024 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 localhost.localdo:10025 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 localhost.localdo:mysql *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 localhost.localdo:10030 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 localhost.localdo:spamd *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 *:sunrpc                *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 *:auth                  *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 domain.de:domain   *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 localhost.locald:domain *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 *:47832                 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 localhost.localdoma:953 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp        0      0 *:smtp                  *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 *:imaps                 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 *:pop3                  *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 *:imap2                 *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 *:www                   *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 *:domain                *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 *:ftp                   *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 ip6-localhost:953       *:*                     LISTEN
    tcp6       0      0 *:https                 *:*                     LISTEN
    udp        0      0 *:58911                 *:*
    udp        0      0 *:946                   *:*
    udp        0      0 domain.de:domain   *:*
    udp        0      0 localhost.locald:domain *:*
    udp        0      0 *:57570                 *:*
    udp        0      0 *:sunrpc                *:*
    udp6       0      0 *:58912                 *:*
    udp6       0      0 *:domain                *:*

    Festplatte/Partitionen anzeigen

    ~ # df -h
    Dateisystem          Größe Benut  Verf Ben% Eingehängt auf
    /dev/hda1              35G  7,4G   26G  23% /
    tmpfs                 507M     0  507M   0% /lib/init/rw
    udev                   10M   48K   10M   1% /dev
    tmpfs                 507M  4,0K  507M   1% /dev/shm
    ~ # cat /proc/partitions
    major minor  #blocks  name
       3     0   78150744 hda
       3     1   37110118 hda1
       3     2    3036285 hda2

    Motherboard Sensoren 

    ~ # apt-get install mbmon
    ~ # mbmon -A
    Temp.= 32.0, 25.0, 35.0; Rot.= 2986,    0,    0
    Vcore = 1.62, 1.60; Volt. = 3.31, 5.16, 11.25, -10.29, -4.44

    weitere System Sensoren 

    ~ # apt-get install lm-sensors
    ~ # sensors-detect
    ...
      laptops, for example.
    Driver `to-be-written' (should be inserted):
      Detects correctly:
      * ISA bus address 0x0290 (Busdriver `i2c-isa')
        Chip `ITE IT8702F Super IO Sensors' (confidence: 9)
    I will now generate the commands needed to load the required modules.
    Just press ENTER to continue:
    To make the sensors modules behave correctly, add these lines to
    /etc/modules:
    #----cut here----
    # I2C adapter drivers
    i2c-i801
    # Chip drivers
    eeprom
    # no driver for ITE IT8702F Super IO Sensors yet
    #----cut here----
    Do you want to add these lines to /etc/modules automatically? (yes/NO) 
    ~ # sensors
    w83627ehf-isa-0290
    Adapter: ISA adapter
    VCore:     +1.26 V  (min =  +0.00 V, max =  +1.74 V)
    in1:      +12.30 V  (min =  +3.01 V, max =  +7.97 V) ALARM
    AVCC:      +3.33 V  (min =  +1.94 V, max =  +3.98 V)
    3VCC:      +3.33 V  (min =  +3.31 V, max =  +0.72 V) ALARM
    in4:       +1.68 V  (min =  +0.19 V, max =  +0.48 V) ALARM
    in5:       +1.62 V  (min =  +2.02 V, max =  +1.26 V) ALARM
    in6:       +5.22 V  (min =  +5.89 V, max =  +2.64 V) ALARM
    VSB:       +3.34 V  (min =  +0.16 V, max =  +3.20 V) ALARM
    VBAT:      +3.23 V  (min =  +3.76 V, max =  +0.78 V) ALARM
    in9:       +1.62 V  (min =  +0.99 V, max =  +0.33 V) ALARM
    Case Fan:    0 RPM  (min =   47 RPM, div = 128) ALARM
    CPU Fan:  2109 RPM  (min = 2636 RPM, div = 4) ALARM
    Aux Fan:     0 RPM  (min = 3629 RPM, div = 4) ALARM
    fan4:        0 RPM  (min = 7417 RPM, div = 2) ALARM
    Sys Temp:    +33°C  (high =   +73°C, hyst =   +32°C)
    CPU Temp:  +25.0°C  (high = +80.0°C, hyst = +75.0°C)
    AUX Temp:  +43.5°C  (high = +80.0°C, hyst = +75.0°C)

    Herausfinden, in welchem Pfad sich ein Programm befindet

    ~ # which ping
    /bin/ping 

    Website von der Console aufrufen (lynx) 

    lynx ermöglicht es, dass man Webseiten von der Console aufrufen kann. Für Notfälle sehr hilfreich.

    lynx_o-o-sde.jpg

    Links:

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